CADRE has been implemented using the Ensembl v22 suite. This suite comprises:

  •  a database schema, which has been devised for storing annotated eukaryotic genomes. The schema is implemented with the MYSQL relational database management system.
  • several specialised programming modules for building interfaces (i.e., BioPerl and Ensembl API modules).
  • a series of programs (i.e., Perl CGI scripts using the API modules) for viewing genomic data within a web browser.

It should be noted that we have made adaptions to this version of Ensembl to enable the storage and annotation of small fungal genomes.

Aspergillus Fumigatus Genome

Using a clinical isolate (Af293), a small portion of the A. fumigatus genome (922kb centered round the niaD locus) was successfully sequenced and annotated in 2004 by a UK-based team (The University of Manchester and The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute). This pilot project led to an international effort to analyse the full genome.

Current release 2.2.1

Last Update: 24-06-2008
Assembly: TIGR, January 2007
Novel genes: 9630
Pseudogenes: 57
tRNA genes: 159
Gene exons: 28527
Gene transcripts: 9846
Supercontigs: 20
Chromosomes: 8
Base pairs: 28841850
Golden path length: 29420269

Aspergillus Fumigatus (A1163) Genome

Sequencing and first-pass mechanized annotation of the A. fumigatus A1163 genome was completed by the JCVI. It comprises of 55 scaffolds. This segregate is a subordinate of A. fumigatus CEA17 changed over to pyrG+ by means of the ectopic addition of the A. niger pyrG quality. CEA17 is a uracil auxotroph of A. fumigatus clinical isolate CEA10.

Current release 1.1.1

Last Update: 07-05-2008
Assembly & annotation: JCVI, April 2008
Novel genes: 9929
Pseudogenes: 0
tRNA genes: 180
Gene exons: 29294
Gene transcripts: 10109
Contigs: 140
Scaffolds: 55
Base pairs: 29098924

    Aspergillus is a genus of moulds that are found world-wide. Over 180 species of it have been recognised, a small number of which cause illness in animals (including humans): A. fumigatusA. flavusA. terreus and A. niger. Most humans are naturally immune and do not develop any of the diseases caused by these moulds. However, when disease does occur, it takes several forms, ranging from an allergy-type illness to life-threatening systemic infection. The severity of the infection is determined by various factors, but one of the most important is the state of the immune system of the person.

Principal Investigators

Paul Bowyer, PhD
Lecturer (Med)

David W Denning, FRCP, FRCPath, DCH
Professor of Medicine and Medical Mycology (Med)
Honorary Consultant

Teresa K Attwood, PhD
Professor (FLS & CS)

Resource Development Team

Jane E Mabey Gilsenan, PhD
Research Associate/Bioinformatician (Med)

Peter F Giles, MSc
Research Associate (Med)

Former members

Michael J Anderson, DPhil
Research Fellow/Curator

Gerard McLoughlin, MSc
Research Assistant

Bethan Pritchard, MSc
Research Assistant

Plastic Surgery: An Art Form

Art can be seen as a way to create beauty where there is none. The Summit of art is, therefore, to create this same beauty from the ungracious raw material, a matter that deviates from beauty. Art is a purely human area because there is no art without a man. Moreover, there is no beauty or ugliness without prior human judgment. If man wants to make art, that is, to create beauty from ugliness, why is he not brace what is most important to him: the gaze of the other? He would make two birds with one stone. Individualism and current society carry physical beauty to the ultimate goal of intersubjective relationships. Art could, therefore, be used to model a body to make it a masterpiece. That’s why services like plastic surgery in denver exist, to create the best version of you.

Science has long been synonymous with progress, before being a source of concern. Cosmetic surgery has recently appeared as opposition to useful and functional surgery. The body can work without being aesthetic. But art does not by definition have any usefulness, intrinsic. He lives through the eyes and judgment, just like the beauty of a body (and not the body itself, as a sum of cells). The surgery is therefore totally atypical since it uses science for purposes so to speak unnecessary and aesthetic. So it is the cross between these two opposing disciplines. And like any bridge between two opposing areas in their aims, it often arouses bitter criticism, often unjust and hypocritical.

In the same way, art is often used as a therapy. What about those people who feel bad about their skin because of a physical defect that continually obsesses them? They are the happiness of reality shows (very present on the American channels) based on cosmetic surgery which then comes as a saver of weak and neglected souls, ungrateful bodies, and offensive judgments. It is in this precise sense that art can be therapy. Access to aesthetics, to beauty, is a path to the well-being that one would be wrong to denigrate.

Finally, there is an ultimate link between cosmetic surgery and art. Art is trivially regarded as a “means of expressing oneself,” a symbol of our interior, an open window of our emotions, our aspirations and our subconscious. And what is cosmetic surgery if not the expression of an evil? It is indeed the symbol of sadness, of the vision of an injustice that birth or age has brought. And instead of expressing this dismay by years of ruminations melodramatic, it is better to face it and express this dismay: “Yes I do not feel good in my body, but I do not lament, I control my body and my misfortune.” With this in mind, there is, therefore, an intrinsic link between beauty and art, namely expression of feelings, and their control.

Five Facts About Aspergillus

Aspergillus is only one of the numerous sorts of fungal formations in the body. There are many types of Aspergillus, but the best known is Aspergillus Niger, also called ‘dark mould’. It is a dull, foul, form usually discovered developing in indoor conditions. Aspergillosis alludes to a few types of infection caused by a fungus in the class Aspergillus. Aspergillosis contagious contaminations can happen in the ear trench, eyes, nose, sinus pits, and lungs. In a few people, the disease can even attack bone and the films that encase the cerebrum and spinal line. Here are some facts about Aspergillus:

Aspergillus spores are always around us:

At the point when moulds develop, they can discharge infinitesimal spores into the air that we relax. It is relatively difficult to abstain from taking in the spores as Aspergillus is pervasive in the earth – it is surrounding us; noticeable all around, in our homes, workplaces, floor coverings, seats and many more. The spores can easily enter any living body with ease. Furthermore, if the immune system of the body is not strong enough, Aspergillus can heavily damage the lungs of the inhaler.

Aspergillus can cause Aspergillosis:

Aspergillosis is caused by breathing in Aspergillus spores which influences the respiratory framework causing manifestations, for example, wheezing, shortness of breath and hacking. Similarly as with numerous contaminations individuals with a debilitated safe framework and at the furthest points of life are most in danger and tend to grow more genuine ailment.Aspergillus irritates the lungs and sensitivity side effects, for example, hacking and wheezing, however, doesn’t cause an infection.

Drying dam clothes on radiators encourage Aspergillus to grow:

Other ‘threat’ territories in the home include the washroom, the kitchen and anyplace overabundance dampness develop. Opening windows to enable air flow can keep this. Different places large amounts of Aspergillus can be discovered include fertiliser stacks, rotting leaves, spoiling vegetation, bogs and woods because of the dull, clammy condition Aspergillus flourishes. So it is necessary to regularly check and clean the areas where Aspergillus can grow and affect a person with a poor immune system.

Aspergillus was named after an aspergillum which is a holy water sprinkler:

Minister and researcher Pier Antonio Micheli first found Aspergillus. He named the form since he thought the spores resembled the state of a sacred dilute sprinkler when watched under the microscope.

Most Aspergillus can grow in nutrient-poor environments:

Aspergillus can grow on a bathroom wall, fabrics and even on plastic products. This unattractive development might be Aspergillus Niger and is a prime case of oligotrophy. To discourage the growth of Aspergillus unused products should be disposed immediately and bathroom walls should also be cleaned.

What is Aspergillus?

Aspergillosis is a contamination, allergic reaction, or fungal development caused by the Aspergillus fungus. The fungus ordinarily develops on rotting vegetation and dead takes off. Exposure to the fungus doesn’t really ensure that you’ll get aspergillosis. Nearly everybody experiences the organism once a day and never gets the ailment. It will probably taint individuals with a frail safe framework or a lung ailment.

The sorts of sicknesses caused by Aspergillus are shifted, extending from a hypersensitivity compose disease to dangerous summed up contaminations. Diseases caused by Aspergillus are called aspergillosis. The seriousness of aspergillosis is controlled by different factors however a standout amongst the most essential is the condition of the resistant arrangement of the individual. There are distinctive sorts of aspergillosis. A few kinds are mellow. However, some of them are intense. They are listed below:

Types of aspergillosis:

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA):

Aspergillus causes irritation in the lungs and sensitivity side effects, for example, hacking and wheezing, however, doesn’t cause an infection.

Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis:

Aspergillus causes aggravation in the sinuses and manifestations of a sinus disease (waste, stuffiness, cerebral pain) however doesn’t cause an infection.


Also known as “fungus ball.” As the name proposes, it is a chunk of Aspergillus that develops in the lungs or sinuses, however more often than not does not spread to different parts of the body.

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis:

A long haul (3 months or more) condition in which Aspergillus can cause depressions in the lungs. At least one fungus balls (aspergillomas) may likewise be available in the victim’s lungs.

Invasive aspergillosis:

Real contamination for the most part influences individuals who have debilitated invulnerable frameworks, for example, individuals who have had an organ transplant or a foundational microorganism transplant. Invasive aspergillosis most regularly influences the lungs. However, it can likewise spread to different parts of the body.

Cutaneous (skin) aspergillosis:

Aspergillus enters the body through a break in the skin (for instance, after surgery or a consume wound) and causes contamination, generally in individuals who have debilitated invulnerable frameworks. Cutaneous aspergillosis can likewise happen if obtrusive aspergillosis spreads to the skin from elsewhere in the body, for example, the lungs.

Treatment of aspergillosis:


Antifungal medication has a wide range of the sickness. Oral or intravenous medications, for example, voriconazole can treat the intrusive sort of aspergillosis. On the off chance that you have hypersensitive aspergillosis, you may get pharmaceutical that stifles your resistant framework, for example, prednisone, alongside antifungal drugs.


On the off chance that the fungus causes disease of your heart valves, surgery is normally important to expel the tainted regions. After the surgery, you’ll get broad antifungal treatment. Remember that aspergillosis isn’t infectious.

Aspergillus Genomes

A new home for Aspergillus data

Aspergillus genome data and by providing visualisation tools, ranging from relatively simple annotation displays to more complex data integration displays. In contrast,
The Aspergillus Website provides a range of information to the medical community (i.e., clinicians, patients and scientists) regarding the genus Aspergillus and the diseases, such as Aspergillosis, that it can cause. We hope, that by bringing this information together, we can extensively cross-link medical information with genomic data to provide a unique resource – one that spans all Aspergillus communities.

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